Human Anatomy is a prerequisite in many degree programs. Science and Nursing majors are required to take courses in Anatomy. Human Anatomy distance learning courses can be used to fill that requirement. These distance learning courses are now offered through universities, community colleges and online universities.

Course content in human anatomy courses is similar in most institutions. Topics such as the human body, all major systems of the body, cells and body tissues are covered in these courses. Two levels of this course are often required for nursing and science majors. Both Anatomy I and II classes require time spent in the lab. Many programs require weekly attendance in lab sessions.

The rest of the course requirements are met via the internet. You will usually be given software on CD ROM to install on your computer, if software is necessary for your course. You may be required to travel to campus for mid term and final exams. Find out the requirements of your school before enrolling to be sure you can commit to the schedule.

One of the problems associated with distance learning is that students often don’t have access to the facilities or materials available to on campus students. Many universities have responded to this need by making more resources available to online students. Check with your school to find the resources available to you.

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The colon should not be considered as one of the minor parts but it plays a very vital role in keeping the body refreshed and clean and tidy.

It is a very critical part of the body which helps the person to keep his body healthy and strong. The body should always intake healthy diet so that the colon is kept clear and tidy. There are various causes for colon problems in one’s body so he should take appropriate steps and follow the right procedure so that colon is kept healthy and are taken properly care off.

The colon can maintain itself as long as the person intakes proper intake of food which contains a lot of fibers and fruits and vegetables. If the body doesn’t have proper amount of fibers and water then it can lead to colon cancer and other disorders which can get much serious in the future.

The colon needs to be kept clean and clear so that there is a proper flow in the intake of food and healthy diet and the body gets to take away unnecessary waste products. These waste products can further in future if not cleared on time can lead to dangerous hazards and have negative effects on one’s body. Many people have now realized that cleansing of colon is one of the most vital parts and hence many of them have now started following it.

Many of the doctors have made a research that a lot of people from different parts of North America face the doors of death due to improper and unhygienic conditions of the colon. So it is very necessary to clear and keep it maintained.


ICZM is a continuous and dynamic process that unites government and the community, science and management, sectoral and public interests in preparing and implementing an integrated plan for the protection and development of coastal system and resources. Coastal area management needs an integrated, interdisciplinary and multi-sectoral approach in the development of good management plans. Solutions to problems and issues are seldom straightforward and require an integrative approach.

A fundamental objective of resource planners, managers and indeed of most human societies is to manage the natural resources. Development need to be aimed at enhancing nature?s contribution to human welfare and not just anticipating and preventing undesirable effects. To overcome the effects caused by the human intervention, climatic change, over exploitation etc., recent technology such as remote sensing and GIS are the effective tools that could be used to putforth management solutions through interdisciplinary studies with an integrative approach and in a perspective way.

The objective of the present work is to provide the best long term and sustainable use of coastal natural resources as well as perpetual maintenance of the most beneficial natural environment. The only possibility for maintaining spatial environment could be achieved through an integrated planning and hence integrated coastal zone management was attempted for the study. ICZM can minimize the costs and costly delays in project implementation; minimize the losses to various users; minimize damage to the marine environment; make the most efficient use of infrastructure, information and technology available to marine development sectors; and avoid conflicting use of coastal and marine environment.


Rutland lies south east of Little Andaman and 55 km south of South Andaman across the Duncan passage; and is an area of high biological productivity. It is located between latitude 11?28?00? to 11?20?00? and longitude 92?35’00” to 92?45’00” E. It occupies an area of 14027.52 ha with an average altitude of 224 meters and a shore length of 98.2 km (SPOT, 1988) (Fig. 1). Highest peak in Rutland is Mt. Ford – 435m. Rutland with its diverse forest habitats is an important ecotourists paradise. The forests are rich in faunal diversity with birds, and are an ideal place for the bird watchers. The island is partially populated but largely virgin. The island has sweet water streams running throughout the year. Geology of Rutland island is mainly with basic and ultra-basic igneous rocks. The underlying rocks are essentially sandstone. Rutland is dominantly with rugged terrain, N-S folded structure that is longitudinal to the eastern and western coasts and transverse to northern and southern coasts. The mountainous origin of the islands also gives rise to an extremely convoluted coastline especially on the east with innumerable coves, deep inlets and wide bays. The higher ground is near the eastern shores. Slope of the Rutland island observed through digital elevation model is as follows, central portion 0? ? 10? , south western 10? ? 20?, south eastern 10? ? 40?, southern 0? ? 20?, northern western 10? ? 20? and north eastern 25? ? 80?

Results and Discussion

Landuse change
For sustainable utilization of the land ecosystem, it is essential to know the nature, characteristics, extent and location of soil resources, its quality, productivity, suitability and limitations for various land uses (Chaurasia et al 1996). In order to improve the economic condition of the area without further deteriorating the bio-environment, every bit of the available land has to be used in a most rational way. This requires the present and past landuse/landcover data of the area (Chaurasia et al 1996). The conventional methods of detecting landuse/landcover changes are costly, low in accuracy and do not present a picture of a large area. Remote sensing, because of its capability of synoptic viewing and repetitive coverage, provides full information on landuse/landcover dynamics on a very large scale. The changes in landuse/landcover due to natural and human activities can be observed using current and archived remotely sensed data (Luong 1993).

SPOT imagery of 1993 and IRS 1C imagery of 2003 were visually interpreted for estimating the landuse change (Figure 1 and Table 1). According to the landuse change observed; reserved forest is found to be 11374.24 during 1993 and 11322.10 during 2003. There is a loss of about 49.14 hectares in reserved forest. Settlement area is absent in 1993 but it is 211.08 hectares in 2003. Coral reef is observed to be 1718.77 hectares in 1993 and 2076.43 hectares in 2003. There is an increase of 357.66 hectares in coral reefs. Sandy area is observed to be 115.21 hectares in 1993 and 51.96 hectares in 2003. There is a decrease of 59.25 hectares in sandy area. Mangrove is observed to be 457.15 hectares in 1993 and 348.64 hectares in 2003. There is a decrease of 108.51 hectares in mangroves area. No degraded mangroves were noticed in 1993 but 66.75 hectares of degraded mangrove area is observed in 2003 imagery. The major coastal issues through landuse change were the loss of reserved forest, loss of sand, loss of mangroves and increase in coral reefs.

3-dimensional model
Slope of the island observed through digital elevation model is as follows; central part 0? – 10?, south western 10? – 20?, south eastern 10? – 40?, southern
0? – 20?, northern western 10? – 20?, and north eastern part 25? – 80? (Fig. 2). It is observed that mostly the north eastern portion of this island is having more peaks whereas other parts of the island are found with moderate slopes.

Stream processes in any terrain are controlled not only by the climatic conditions, but lithology and geologic structures also have great control as they influence the nature of flow, erosion and sediment transportation. The degree of dependence varies with the physical and chemical properties of the rocks. The permeability, the structural characteristics and the degree of jointing/fractures also affect the extent to which the materials can be detached by fluvial processes (Derbyshire et al., 1981). The role of rock types and geologic structure in the development of stream networks can be better understood by studying the nature and type of drainage pattern and by a quantitative morphometric analysis (Nag and Chakraborty 2003). Drainage pattern observed in Rutland area were dentritic in nature. This pattern exhibits that the mountains may be volcanic / metamorphic in origin. There are about 498 streams in the northern portion of Rutland Island and about 338 streams found in the southern portion of the Island. The streams generally follow a steep slope in northern portion but they follow a gentle slope in southern portion of the island. Depending upon the elevation of the terrain, drainage pattern and river flow direction, particular sites were specified for erecting dams. However subsurface study is also necessary to find the exact location for erecting dam. Since Rutland Island is near South Andaman and has enough potential for fresh water supply, the following locations are suggested for pumping stations to meet out the demand of South Andaman. Water may be carried out to South Andaman Island during summer months through pipe line connectivity.

Coastal Issues
Degradation in mangroves is observed in northern portion of the Island. Development of settlement area and more sedimentation in coastal environment are the major issues for the degradation of mangroves. Loss in the reserve forest is attributed to the development of settlement area. The loss in reserve forest is observed at northeastern portion of the island. Gentle slope and sparse forest cover, favors the development of settlement in this portion. Sand area was found to have decreased in almost all the parts of the island. This may be due to sand mining or due to natural processes.

Management Issues
Tourism is a main sector of the world economy, accounting for nearly 11 per cent of global GDP (Topfler;1999). Nature-based tourism now comprises 20 per cent of the world travel market, and ecotourism 7 per cent (TIES: 1999). According to a report presented at a WTO seminar Spain earlier this year, 20 million+ Europeans consider the environment as their main motivation for travel (WTO: 1999). There is a general agreement that ecotourism is a type of travel to a natural area that supports conservation activities, contributions to local community development and leads to greater understanding and appreciation of the natural and cultural environments. However, conservation is the primary objective of ecotourism.

“Ecotourism is a concept that grew from the need to meet the objectives of nature conservation while recognizing the rights of local people to utilize their locally available natural resources. Conservationists realized that the imposition of the western model of protected area management in areas where local people relied on natural resources for their daily sustenance was unjust and indefensible…Conservationists who recognized the injustice of the Western model of protected area management sought to implement a more considerate form of conservation that acknowledged the rights of indigenous people, did not forcibly evict them from their homes or deny them access to traditional resources in the name of conservation of nature… Tourism was introduced as a tool for nature?s conservation. To compensate for reduced consumption of forest products income for communities is generated through the community involvement in a tourism enterprise. The process was called ecotourism” (Lincoln International; 1998). In Rutland Island Ecotourism site selection was observed based on the criteria where sandy beach was available; Slope of the terrain was less that 20? and ground water of good quality was available. Based on the above criteria sites for ecotourism were suggested as the selected portion of the island.

In India, though a huge quantity of surface water (Elango and Mohan, 1997) is available, the topography and other factors limit the storage of this water. Elango and Mohan (1997) suggested that failures in ground water recharge could be avoided by constructing the artificial recharging structures at places where they are more effective in recharging the aquifers. The location of site for construction plays the primary role in the effectiveness of any artificial recharge structure (Jothiprakash et al., 1997).

In recent years, extensive use of India topographical maps, collateral information and limited field checks, has made it easier to establish the base line information for ground water prospective zones (Singh et al., 1993; Chi and Lee, 1994; Haridass et al., 1994; Tiwari and Rai, 1996; Das et al., 1997; Ravindran and Jeyaram, 1997; Pratap et al., 1997; Pal et al., 1997; Pradeep, 1998; Subba Rao and Prathap Reddy, 1999; Thomas et al., 1999; Harinarayana et al., 2000; Muralidhar et al., 2000; Obi Reddy et al., 2000). The occurrence and movement of groundwater in an area is governed by several factors such as topography, lithology, geological structure, depth of weathering, extent of fractures, slope, drainage pattern, landuse and landcover, climatic conditions and inter relationships between these factors (Pratap et al., 2000). Most of the above studies were mainly to identify areas having groundwater potential, but very little work has been done in identifying zones suitable for groundwater potential/prospect zones. Delineation of potential zones for artificial recharge is also governed by several factors such as geology, permeability, soil depth, drainage intensity, soil texture, water holding capacity and physiography. In Rutland Island, the construction of artificial recharge structures are suggested based on the criteria where slope was less than 30?; high drainage density and buried pediment zones were present.

Utilitarian approach is suggested for sustainable management of the coastal resources in Rutland Island

No development activity should be promoted in wetland areas

No development activity should be promoted within 10 meters buffer of 1st, 2nd and 3rd order streams and within 20 meters buffer for rivers.

Erosion activity of the streams should be checked in the highest elevations by erecting antierosion structures.

The ICZM plan must be strictly followed for the better utility of the Rutland Island.

No permanent concrete structures should be developed in this island.

Landuse change detection, 3 dimensional modeling and drainage pattern were studied. It is found that there is a decrease in sand, forest cover and mangroves. The decrease is attributed to the development of settlement. Through 3d elevation and drainage pattern, sites for dam construction and borehole location were identified. By integrating landuse, 3d elevation and drainage maps, ICZM plan map was prepared and sites for ecotourism and artificial recharge were suggested. According to the ICZM plan map management solutions were also suggested. If this plan map is implemented this would be of immense use to Rutland Island.

Medical school admissions requirements and the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) are hindering change in the undergraduate biology curriculum and should be reexamined in light of the recommendations in this report. Innovation in undergraduate biology education is constrained by medical school admission requirements and specifically by the MCAT exam. The committee recommends that an independent review of medical school admission requirements and testing be conducted in light of the rapidly changing nature of biological and biomedical research, and the consequent need to transform undergraduate science education.

The curricular demands placed on undergraduate programs by students who want to score well on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) have a major impact on the curriculum and course content of all life science majors, especially at schools where the same courses are offered to premedical students and those headed for research careers. This is especially true of the chemistry courses taken by the majority of life science majors. Most medical schools in the United States require applicants to have completed one year of general chemistry and one year of organic chemistry. In addition, satisfactory performance on the MCAT is a key admission requirement for medical school.

Changes that would likely benefit both groups of students are limited by the need to prepare premedical students for medical school admission committees and the current format of the MCAT itself, although it is by no means clear that the current testing regime is particularly relevant to preparing future physicians of the 21″ century. Indeed, premedical students constitute a substantial proportion of the next generation of biomedical researchers who will need to be leaders in the same dynamically changing landscape of biomedical research as life science majors. Medicine itself is becoming more interdisciplinary, and future physicians could also benefit from the interdisciplinary changes called for in this report. A change in the MCAT itself, or in the way it is used for medical school admissions, would allow the biology curriculum to develop in a way that is beneficial to all students instead of allowing the content of the MCAT to dictate what students are taught. Undergraduate biology education can be effectively transformed only through close and sustained collaboration between colleges, universities, government agencies, professional societies, and foundations.

It is often assumed that once a useful pedagogical approach is identified, it will be reproducible, easy to disseminate, and simple for another faculty member to implement in her home institution. The reality is that in teaching, as in research, faculty need to be trained to carry out new tasks and their efforts to do so need to be recognized. Inverting in Faculty; a recent Project Kaleidoscope report, comments on the importance of faculty development and presents “An Investment Roadmap” describing ways institutions can enhance teaching. Making Teaching Community Property focuses more on actions by faculty, including mentoring of new faculty, team teaching, and collaborative approaches to inquiry. A historical perspective on faculty responsibilities is presented in Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities. From all the things above, maybe you have learned some knowledge of this subject. But today we woul like to tell you more things like christian louboutian shoes and christian louboutian.

It seems that almost daily there are news stories about consumers who purchased ?lemons? and were forced to sue auto manufacturers for compensation. Prior to the filing of these suits, many of them experienced all manner of delays and refusals of help from dealerships and manufacturers, finally turning to lemon law attorneys as a ?last resort.?

It well behooves a consumer to turn to such professionals just as soon as they realize they are driving a defective vehicle. Part of the problem lies in education: how do you know if you?re driving a lemon?

?The lemon laws refer to such vehicles as those that qualify for a refund or return,? said leading California lemon law attorney Norman Taylor. ?Most define them as vehicles that the manufacturer has not successfully repaired after a certain number of attempts, or after the vehicle has been out of service for a particular number of days.? Consumers should consult such an attorney if they have questions on the specifics of their particular state laws.

A vehicle defect is defined as something that the vehicle does that it should not do (for example, pulls to the left), or something it does not do that it should (for example, won?t start) that falls below the standard set forth in the vehicle?s warranty. Most lemon laws also specify within the definition that a ?lemon? has a defective condition that substantially impairs its use. ?Certainly defects that prevent the vehicle from starting, stopping, turning or otherwise operating properly would qualify as ?substantial impairment,?? said Taylor.?Defects in important components like the air conditioning system or even significant paint defects that require repainting the entire vehicle might also be substantial impairments.?

Whether a defect is a substantial impairment or not is ultimately a decision for a judge or a jury. However, how the consumer feels about his or her experiences with the vehicle may also assist a jury in determining whether the vehicle is a lemon. ?In many states, whether impairment is substantial is determined from the point of view of the consumer, not the manufacturer,? Taylor said. ?This suggests a subjective standard, from the point of view of the particular consumer in each case. If you have a new vehicle that doesn?t work as promised, it can certainly leave a bitter taste in your mouth.?

If you re driving a vehicle that you feel is defective, the time to act is now. Contact a lemon law attorney, know your rights and?most importantly?know if you are indeed driving a lemon.

About Norman Taylor & Associates

Norman F. Taylor and Associates have been assisting consumers since 1987. At Norman Taylor & Associates, the goal is to provide clients with the highest quality of legal representation if they?re one of the unfortunate residents of California who?ve had the misfortune of purchasing defective vehicles or goods and who have recourse under the Lemon Law. They represent consumers in Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura and Santa Barbara counties. With a twenty two year history of successful cases, Norman Taylor & Associates has established their reputation as a firm of consumer advocates that get the job done.

Emissions trading is a market-based approach to achieving environmental change. It allows those reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, to use or trade the excess reductions to offset emissions at other sources. The controversy lies within the detailed framework of the Kyoto Protocol allowing thriving countries to receive profits for their efforts in reducing GHGs. In an effort to place some limits on what some consider a unbridled market, the European Union (EU) working with Kyoto Protocol had implemented measures to monitor the daily workings of this ?carbon market?.

The EU European Trading System is a cap and trade scheme and is the largest GHG emissions trading schemes in the world. In this system a cap is set on the total amount of emissions allowable by those sectors that are subject to the scheme. Allowances (permits) are then allocated to individual emitters or installations with the total number of allowances adding up to the cap.

Several nations now adhere to the legally binding measures of what is known as the Kyoto Protocol. The treaty was able to begin enforcing regulations in February, 2005. The Protocol targets six main GHGs; carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride. Industry, agriculture and deforestation are considered the sources of theses gases. Carbon dioxide is now the most traded greenhouse gas because of wide global production.

Countries complying with their commitment to the Protocol use three specific methods; they can accomplish the reduction in emissions in their own countries, implement projects or programs in other countries leading to reductions or purchase emissions allowances from countries that have exceeded their specific commitment under the scheme.

The Kyoto Protocol?s goal is to cut emissions by at least 5% in the period 2008-2012. The European Union has committed to reduce GHG emissions by 8%. The EU ETS set out a trading emissions framework in two phases, the first being a pilot phase starting in 2005 and ending in 2007 and the second phase covering the period 2008 to 2012. The scheme covers only carbon dioxide in the first phase but anticipates other GHGs to be included in later phases. The EU ETS is the first international trading system for carbon dioxide in the world and covers around 12,000 energy-intensive installations.

In terms of continued global support, the price of carbon will continue to be a key issue. The effect of weather patterns on energy prices can also effect GHG emissions. The ETS must monitor the continuous effects of weather to allow for allowance deficits and allowance surplus in any given time frame. These signals will determine the status of the market.

There has been a softening of the terms surrounding the larger power companies which causes more discretion on the part of environmentalists and under developed countries whose emissions are fewer than that of the larger companies. However, the larger entities seem to be benefiting more from the market.

Supply and demand could also be significantly effected should the United States deem the ETS successful in the first phase and ratify the Kyoto Protocol by the second phase. The market will fluctuate and given the complicated workings of the protocol, changes may be implemented effecting the market worldwide.

GHG emissions is an ongoing consequential issue and the key players, power companies, governments, politicians and environmentalists will always have a large role to play in the daily workings of the market. It is said that emissions prices will continue to rise and fall and the fundamental workings and behavior of participating entities may continue to be obscure. It is a global problem that in order to be globally successful must also be politically acceptable. It is therefore important to keep abreast of all issues in the market.

Geographic information system is premeditated to store, manage, capture, manipulate and present all the geographical data. It is used for resource management, development planning, scientific investigations. It is beneficial to the organizations of all sizes and sectors.

Geographic Information Systems can help us find places and patterns we are looking for. It saves the cost and increases effectiveness. It also aids with being better decisive and providing better record keeping. GIS has come out as an important constitute in facilitation of health, tourism, telecommunication, agriculture, disaster management, urban development, etc. GIS is a potential tool for building solutions for water resource. It helps in increasing the productivity by providing efficiency. Water is the basic necessity of every human being to survive and so it gets crucial to know that the resources are less. So conserving, saving and managing is really important. The water conservation laid emphasis on the sustainable development of water. GIS assesses the quality of water and manages water resources.

Geographic Information Systems enhances calculations for watershed distinctiveness, debris flow probability, flow statistics and with the help of digital elevation models facilitates the watershed delineation. For effective flood plain management correct and preventative measures are required to reduce flood damage. Best Geographic Information Systems helps to gain a profound understanding of the upcoming problems. It helps by bringing acute information and less approximate.

There are many places that lack with water resources. So the water management in such areas is mandatory. Crisis of water leads to depletion of many natural resources. GIS monitors locale change, predict future land and track wildlife demographics. The Geographic Information Systems make possible for the users to cover various data to set down and forecast the future of resources, wildlife, land, ocean, plant life, etc. The tool enables the protection and sustainability of the environment and its resources. With the correct assessment done through GIS decision makers can put into practice better laws and programs that can proof to be essential in sustainable development. At Aqua Foundation, Best Geographic Information Systems, solutions can be provided for sustainable water management. It can help in augmenting the efficiency of water in the agriculture, rural, urban and industrial sector. The organization is budding up with new technology which is playing a crucial role in integrated water management. The effective management of such resources is a challenging task but with the help of Best Geographic Information Systems effective solutions can be produced.

Physics is the study of matter and energy and how these forces interact with space, time and gravity. The study of physics has dated back to the ancient Greeks and fundamentals can be found in writings from Aristotle and Plato. Originally there were not many experiments that could be conducted at that time so physics took on more of a role of theory and tied in closely with many aspects of philosophy at the time. Originally this division of science was referred to as “natural philosophy” and it wasn’t until late into the 19th century when it took upon the name physics. Physics played an integral role in the philosophies of ancient civilizations and can be found in ancient Greek, ancient Muslims, ancient Chinese and ancient Indians.

Thales was a philosopher in Greece in the 7th and 6th century BC who today is revered by many as the father of science. Anaximander was another philosopher about a century later who is credited to theorizing the first evolutionary theory which is now known as proto-evolutionary theory. Plato’s student Aristotle is credited to writing about a number of topics including physics, biology and mathematics. Archimedes was a mathematician who wrote a great deal about mechanics, buoyancy, equilibrium and gravity. In the 1st century BC Hipparchus wrote about astronomy and mathematics and devised a map of the starts and predicted solar eclipses. And finally Ptolemy was regarded highly among his colleges and later scientists for his development of the scientific treatises. The Greeks played a key role in the foundation of scientific studies which would later be adopted by other civilizations across the world.

Much of the knowledge first written by ancient Greeks eventually found its way into the Muslim world before the 5th century AD. During the European Dark Ages (5th – 15th century) tremendous advancements were made by Muslim scientists. A facility existed in Baghdad, Iraq called the House of Wisdom which held the works of many of the great Muslim scientists of the ancient world. Some of the leading figures included Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi and Averroes who expanded upon the Greek philosophies and adapted them for the Muslim religion. Perhaps one of the greatest discoveries that came about form the Muslim world during this time was the discovery of optics by Ibn al-Haytham who lived between (965 – 1040 AD) and was a mathematician in Basra, Iraq. His research was based off the writings of Ptolemy’s and Aristotle’s observations on light. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201 – 1274 AD) was a mathematician and astronomer who was credited to authoring the Treasury of Astronomy which was one of the most accurate tables describing planetary movement of its time.

Scientific studies in the ancient world helped to lead to the Renaissance and many other cultural and intellectual developments across many civilizations. Physics began initially as a philosophy but soon began to take on a variety of disciplines. These branches of physics continued to evolve into what can be studied today. Ironically the origins of physics began as philosophy and today theoretical physics is one of the most famous and intriguing disciplines within the community of physicists almost coming full circle.

Nitric acid is known to be a very dangerous substance. It is highly corrosive, very reactive, poisonous and a strong oxidizer. Needless to say, one should be very well-equipped with the necessary knowledge and gears in order to make use of this acid properly and to avoid very dangerous situations. In fact, strict rules and regulations are being implemented in order to monitor the distribution of the acid in the industrial market. These are meant to lessen the risk of accidents and misuse when dealing with it.

However, amidst this notoriety, nitric acid is a very important component in many industrial processes and production of important products. It is because of this that a lot of companies still manufacture, distribute and produce this substance and a lot of businesses use this highly dangerous acid.

Since the use of the substance is inevitable, granting its contribution to our society, one must be aware of the potential hazards that the acid could cause. It would be sheer irresponsibility to just think about how to buy nitric acid. Any industries that have to do with the substance should be able to see to it that they know the possible dangers that it could cause to human lives. In doing so, they will be able to make a working environment that is safe and has all the precautionary measures to avoid severe damages that nitric acid could possibly cause.

For one, the acid is known to be very corrosive and it could affect a person through inhalation, skin contact and eye contact. Each kind of exposure carries certain dangers to a person’s life. Furthermore, certain processes that the acid undergoes could make it emit vapors, which, when inhaled, could lead to pulmonary edema and pneumonia. It does not take a rocket scientist to know that these conditions are very fatal to a person’s life. Secondly, when the substance gets to the skin, it can cause skin burns, redness and pain. The extent of damage would depend on the quantity of the acid that came into contact with the skin. In fact, acid in its concentrated solution form could cause deep ulcers and yellow or yellow-brown stain to the skin. Lastly, if a person handles the acid without any eye protection, he runs the risk of getting severe and irreversible damage to his eyes.

In knowing these possible accident scenarios, you will be able to create and use preventive measures in any processes that require the use of HNO3. Hopefully, you will be able to avoid accidents from happening and even improve you company’s production. Just always remember that no matter how dangerous something is, everything would still depend on how you use it. And, by knowing the potential dangers nitric acid could cause, you can be more cautious in handling it.

The weight values that are shown on the indicator of an industrial scale are of critical importance to the scale operator. A bench scale may be weighing small packages. Or a parts counting scale may be determining the number of parts in a container. Larger drum scales and platform scales may be determining the amount of liquid in a tank or dewar or drum. And large floor scales will be weighing totes, pallets and large tanks. Besides reading the weight information, the operator of the electronic scale can also perform certain control functions, such as applying a tare weight, zeroing the weight on the scale, and choosing the units of measurement, such as pounds or kilos.

While it is required and expected that all digital scales provide all of this functionality locally, it is often desired to be able to also perform all of these functions from another location. In these cases, the most common requirement is to read weight data and control the scale from a local computer. Arlyn Scales provides optional Remote Indicator software that can be operated from any Windows based computer. The electronic scale must be connected to the computer. Typically, this connection would be an industrial standard RS-232 communication line. Alternatively, the USB (Universal Serial Bus) connection may be used.

Now, the computer operator can read weight data directly on the computer screen. They can also save this data in some other computer format, including spreadsheets and databases. Furthermore, the industrial scale can also be controlled directly from the computer. If the scale must be switched from the Net mode to the Gross mode, or the weight of a container must be subtracted, this may be accomplished from the computer keyboard.